APA (Fifth Edition): Citation Style Examples
[Printer friendly PDF version]
[Pre-2007 guidelines: Printer friendly PDF version]
APA uses the author-date in-text citation method, in which the surname of the author and year of publication are inserted in the text of the paper or
article (e.g., (Smith, 2005)). To cite a specific part of a source, a page number can also be given (e.g., (Smith, 2005, p. 55)). A single
alphabetical reference list appears at the end of the paper, formatted according to the examples below.
Electronic Sources (NEW guidelines in 2007)
The citation style examples below follow the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, which is a revised and updated version of section 4.16 of the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA). For more detailed explanations or additional examples consult the APA Style Guide to Electronic References online or in print at HIL-REFDSK BF76.7 .A63 2007. Highlights include:
- [Electronic version] is no longer required in references.
- When a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is available, include it instead of a URL. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string which identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location.
- For works licensed by UNB Libraries, but which have no DOI, give the URL of the home page. Do not give the full URL for the exact article or item. Give the full URL for other websites.
- It is no longer necessary to include the database name in references, with the exception of documents of limited circulation, such as dissertations.
- The retrieval date is no longer necessary, unless the cited content is undated or likely to be changed (e.g., encyclopedia and other reference work entries, other websites).
- For journal article references, the issue number is required along with the volume number.
- e-Journal Article with DOI Assigned
- Kirsh, S.J. (2006). Cartoon violence and aggression in youth. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11(6), 547-557. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2005.10.002
- e-Journal Article with no DOI Assigned
- Felsenstein, D., & Freeman, D. (1998). Simulating the impacts of gambling in a tourist location: Some evidence from Israel. Journal of Travel Research, 37(2), 145-156. Retrieved from http://jtr.sagepub.com
- Newspaper Article
- Shipley, D. (2004, September 3). New national study counters stereotype of binge-drinking university students. The New Brunswick Telegraph Journal. Retrieved from http://www.fpinfomart.ca
- Russell-Brown, K. (2004). Underground codes: Race, crime, and related fires. New York: University Press. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com
- Entry in an Online Encyclopedia
- Rock, P. (2002). Sociology of prison life. In N.J. Smelser & P.B. Baltes (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. Retrieved August 25, 2005, from http://sciencedirect.com
- Higgins, M.W. (1979). Thomas Merton, the silent-speaking visionary: A study of his poetry. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. (AAT NK40997)
- Other Website
- Dvoretsky, D. P. (n.d.). History: Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved January 27, 2007, from http://www.infran.ru/history_eng.htm
The citation style examples below follow the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA). For more detailed explanations or additional examples consult the Manual in one of the libraries (HIL-REFDSK, ENGRESERVE, SCI-REF BF76.7 .P83 2001), or see the tips or FAQs on the APA Style website.
- Journal Article
- Hartnagel, T. (1998). Labour-market problems and crime in the transition from school to work. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 35, 435-459.
- Magazine Article
- Chidley, J. (1998, June 8). Viagra fever. Maclean's, 111(23), 14-21.
- Newspaper Article
- Anderssen, E. (1999, January 5). Seal cull touted by Newfoundland study. The Globe and Mail, p. A4.
- Harnack, A., & Kleppinger, E. (1997). The Internet guide for students and writers. New York: St. Martin's Press.
- Entry in an Encyclopedia
- Rock, P. (2001). Sociology of prison life. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 18, pp. 12055-12059). New York: Elsevier.
Note on indenting, italics, and spacing: Some instructors still prefer the older APA method, which requires regular paragraph (first-line) indents instead of hanging indents, and underlining of titles instead of italics. APA continues to allow for these alternatives. Also note that APA normally requires double-spacing, but does allow the option of single spacing references.
For more citation style examples and additional details see:
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).
In print at HIL-REFDSK (3 copies), ENGRESERVE (2 copies), SCI-REF BF76.7 .P83 2001
- APA Style website
www.apastyle.org (includes tips and FAQs, but not the entire manual online)
For guides to other styles (MLA, Chicago, CSE, etc.), see the Writing Handbooks and Style Manuals page.
You can use RefWorks to automatically format citations: As you conduct your online research you can export citations to your own RefWorks database, and later use RefWorks to automatically
format your bibliography using any of the standard citation styles. If you are using library databases from CSA (Sociological Abstracts, Criminal Justice Abstracts, etc.), you also have the option of directly creating a formatted bibliography using QuickBib.